One wonders how many grandparents are aware of (let alone plan for) the possibility that they may have a legal duty to support their grandchildren in certain circumstances.
It could be a heavy blow – trying to navigate one’s retirement financially can be hard enough without suddenly having to maintain not only yourself and your spouse but also a grandchild, possibly for decades. And what about the risk that when you die your deceased estate might remain liable – a drain, possibly a critical one, on your estate’s sufficiency to support your surviving spouse?
A recent Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA) decision confirms that –
- As a grandparent you are potentially liable for maintenance during your lifetime but
- When you die, your deceased estate will (as the law currently stands) not be liable.
The adult granddaughter’s claim and the law
This was a damages claim against the executors of a grandfather’s deceased estate based on the proposition that the estate was liable to pay maintenance for a 30-year-old granddaughter unable to support herself because of psychiatric issues, mild intellectual disability and an autism spectrum disorder. The father had emigrated, had paid no maintenance, and was allegedly untraceable, whilst the mother’s ability or inability to fully support her child had not been established.
The SCA was asked to break new legal ground by extending a grandparent’s liability to his or her deceased estate, but on the evidence before it in this case (i.e. our courts may revisit this issue in the future) the Court declined to extend the law in this way, and set out our current law as follows –
Liability for maintenance generally depends on three factors –
- The claimant’s inability to support him or herself.
- His or her relationship with the person from whom support is claimed.
- That person’s ability to provide support.
The primary caregivers are the parents who have a duty of support as far as they are able to do so (this applies also to the parents’ deceased estates when they die).
Parents and children have a reciprocal duty of support.
“If parents are unable to support their children who are in need of support, other relatives including grandparents, may be obliged to support them … But that duty is imposed first upon a nearer relative before it moves to remoter ones.” (Emphasis supplied).
However, as our law stands, a grandparent’s deceased estate is not liable.
In summary – 3 factors for liability
In other words, you (but currently not your deceased estate) could be liable to pay maintenance if –
- Your grandchild is not self-supporting,
- Neither parent (nor their deceased estates) is financially able to provide the necessary support, and
- You are financially able to do so.